A typical LED is made up of the chip which is the semiconductor that produces the light when electrically connected. The chip is connected by a very thin bond wire to a lead electrical contact that acts as the cathode. The chip is bonded with a thermal heat sink and a ceramic base. The chip is enclosed by a lens that not only protects the chip; but also modulates the light beam to the desired angle dependant on the nature of the lens. For production of white light; the chips are coated with phosphors.